The National Intelligence Director James Clapper said in testimony delivered to the House Intelligence Committee on tuesday that, among state actors, China and Russia are of particular concern.
In fact, as indicated in the October 2011 biennial economic espionage report from the National Counterintelligence Executive, entities within these countries are responsible for extensive illicit intrusions into US computer networks and theft of US intellectual property.
Russia and China are aggressive and successful purveyors of economic espionage against the United States too.
Iran’s intelligence operations against the United States, including cyber capabilities, have dramatically increased in recent years in depth and complexity. The DNI assesses that foreign intelligence services (FIS) from these three countries will remain the top threats to the United States in the coming years.
The intelligence Director said two of the greatest strategic challenges regarding cyberthreats are (1) the difficulty of providing timely, actionable warning of cyber threats and incidents, such as identifying past or present security breaches, definitively attributing them, and accurately distinguishing between cyber espionage intrusions and potentially disruptive cyber attacks; and (2) the highly complex vulnerabilities associated with the IT supply chain for US networks. In both cases, US Government engagement with private sector owners and operators of critical infrastructures is essential for mitigating these threats.
Read all the testimony here: